The Renal Module covers the kidneys the urogenital system including ureters, urinary bladder and prostate. The lecture series of the module begins with the normal development and structure of urogenital system, moves into the normal physiology of the kidney, introduces the action of pharmacological agents relevant to kidney function, and concludes with introduction of pathological processes of infectious, oncological, and immune injury. Throughout the module, students are engaged in learning activities that challenge them to explore further the mechanisms of disease, the application of basic principles of organ structure and function to disease states, and approaches to problem-solving in the consideration of ethical and medical issues confronting patients with kidney disease. The students will be schooled in the evaluation of kidney diseases through direct patient evaluation as well as the radiological and laboratory evaluation of kidney and urogenital structure and function. Through both directed and independent learning venues, the students will have the opportunity to foster life-long learning skills, develop effective communications skills, and practice the cooperative skills needed to address the complex modes of effective delivery of medical care expected in the future. In sum, students will be given a foundation of basic medical knowledge reaching from the cellular to the whole organ level and the means to apply mechanism of function and pathophysiology to understanding the care of patients with urogenital disease.